Emerging Interconnect Technologies for Nanoelectronics
Krishna Saraswat, Stanford University
Modern electronics has advanced at a tremendous pace over the course of the last half century; primarily due to enhanced performance of MOS transistors due to dimension scaling, introduction of new materials, and novel device structures. However, while this has enhanced the transistor performance, the opposite is true for the copper interconnects that link these transistors. Looking into the future, the relentless scaling paradigm is threatened by the limits of copper/low-k interconnects, including excessive power dissipation, insufficient communication bandwidth, and signal latency for both off-chip and on-chip applications. Many of these obstacles stem from the physical limitations of copper/low-k electrical wires, namely the increase in copper resistivity, as wire dimensions and grain size become comparable to the bulk mean free path of electrons in copper and the dielectric capacitance. Thus, it is imperative to examine alternate interconnect schemes and explore possible advantages of novel potential candidates. This talk will address effects of scaling on the performance of Cu/low-k interconnects, alternate interconnect schemes: carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene, optical interconnect, three-dimensional (3-D) integration, and heterogeneous integration of these technologies on the silicon platform. Performance comparison of these technologies with Cu/low-k interconnects will be discussed.
Krishna Saraswat is Rickey/Nielsen chair professor of electrical engineering at Stanford University. He also has an honorary appointment of an adjunct professor at the BITS, Pilani, India since January 2004. He received his PhD from Stanford University in 1974 and a BE from BITS in 1968. His research interests are in new and innovative materials, structures, and process technology of silicon, germanium and III-V devices, and metal and optical interconnects for nanoelectronics, and high efficiency and low cost solar cells. He has supervised more than 85 doctoral students, 25 post doctoral scholars, and has authored or co-authored over 750 technical papers. He is a life fellow of the IEEE. He received the Thomas Callinan Award from The Electrochemical Society in 2000, the 2004 IEEE Andrew Grove, Inventor Recognition Award from MARCO/FCRP in 2007, the Technovisionary Award from the India Semiconductor Association in 2007, and the Semiconductor Industry Association Researcher of the Year Award in 2012. He is listed by ISI as one of the 250 highly cited authors in his field.